XCALC(1) MachTen Programmer’s Manual XCALC(1)

NAME

xcalc - scientific calculator for X

SYNOPSIS

xcalc [-stipple] [-rpn] [-toolkitoption...]

DESCRIPTION

xcalc is a scientific calculator desktop accessory that

can emulate a TI-30 or an HP-10C.

OPTIONS

xcalc accepts all of the standard toolkit command line

options along with two additional options:

-stipple

This option indicates that the background of the

calculator should be drawn using a stipple of the

foreground and background colors. On monochrome

displays improves the appearance.

-rpn This option indicates that
Reverse Polish Notation

should be used. In this mode the calculator will

look and behave like an HP-10C. Without this

flag, it will emulate a TI-30.

OPERATION

Pointer Usage: Operations may be performed with pointer

button 1, or in some cases, with the keyboard. Many com-

mon calculator operations have keyboard accelerators. To

quit, press pointer button 3 on the AC key of the TI cal-

culator, or the ON key of the HP calculator.

Calculator Key Usage (TI mode):
The numbered keys, the +/-

key, and the +, -, *, /, and = keys all do exactly what

you would expect them to. It should be noted that the

operators obey the standard rules of precedence. Thus,

entering "3+4*5=" results in "23", not
"35". The paren-

theses can be used to override this. For example,

"(1+2+3)*(4+5+6)=" results in
"6*15=90".

The entire number in the
calculator display can be

selected, in order to paste the result of a calculation

into text.

The action procedures associated
with each function are

given below. These are useful if you are interested in

defining a custom calculator. The action used for all

digit keys is digit(n), where n is the corresponding

digit, 0..9.

1/x Replaces the number in the
display with its

reciprocal. The corresponding action procedure

is reciprocal().

x^2 Squares the number in the
display. The corre-

sponding action procedure is square().

SQRT Takes the square root of
the number in the

display. The corresponding action procedure is

squareRoot().

CE/C When pressed once, clears
the number in the dis-

play without clearing the state of the machine.

Allows you to re-enter a number if you make a

mistake. Pressing it twice clears the state,

also. The corresponding action procedure for TI

mode is clear().

AC Clears the display, the
state, and the memory.

Pressing it with the third pointer button turns

off the calculator, in that it exits the pro-

gram. The action procedure to clear the state

is off(); to quit, quit().

INV Invert function. See the
individual function

keys for details. The corresponding action pro-

cedure is inverse().

sin Computes the sine of the
number in the display,

as interpreted by the current DRG mode (see DRG,

below). If inverted, it computes the arcsine.

The corresponding action procedure is sine().

cos Computes the cosine, or
arccosine when inverted.

The corresponding action procedure is cosine().

tan Computes the tangent, or
arctangent when

inverted. The corresponding action procedure is

tangent().

DRG Changes the DRG mode, as
indicated by ’DEG’,

’RAD’, or ’GRAD’ at the bottom of of
the calcu-

lator ‘‘liquid crystal’’ display.
When in ’DEG’

mode, numbers in the display are taken as being

degrees. In ’RAD’ mode, numbers are in radians,

and in ’GRAD’ mode, numbers are in grads. When

inverted, the DRG key has a feature of convert-

ing degrees to radians to grads and vice-versa.

Example: put the calculator into ’DEG’ mode,

and enter "45 INV DRG". The display should now

show something along the lines of ".785398",

which is 45 degrees converted to radians. The

corresponding action procedure is degree().

e The constant ’e’.
(2.7182818...). The corre-

sponding action procedure is e().

EE Used for entering exponential
numbers. For

example, to get "-2.3E-4" you’d enter
"2 . 3 +/-

EE 4 +/-". The corresponding action procedure

is scientific().

log Calculates the log (base 10)
of the number in

the display. When inverted, it raises "10.0" to

the number in the display. For example, enter-

ing "3 INV log" should result in "1000".
The

corresponding action procedure is logarithm().

ln Calculates the log (base e)
of the number in the

display. When inverted, it raises "e" to the

number in the display. For example, entering "e

ln" should result in "1". The corresponding

action procedure is naturalLog().

y^x Raises the number on the
left to the power of

the number on the right. For example "2 y^x 3

=" results in "8", which is 2^3. For a
further

example, "(1+2+3) y^x (1+2) =" equals "6 y^x
3"

which equals "216". The corresponding action

procedure is power().

PI The constant
’pi’. (3.1415927....) The corre-

sponding action procedure is pi().

x! Computes the factorial of the
number in the dis-

play. The number in the display must be an

integer in the range 0-500, though, depending on

your math library, it might overflow long before

that. The corresponding action procedure is

factorial().

( Left parenthesis. The
corresponding action pro-

cedure for TI calculators is leftParen().

) Right parenthesis. The
corresponding action

procedure for TI calculators is rightParen().

/ Division. The corresponding
action procedure is

divide().

* Multiplication. The
corresponding action proce-

dure is multiply().

- Subtraction. The corresponding
action procedure

is subtract().

+ Addition. The corresponding
action procedure is

add().

= Perform calculation. The
TI-specific action

procedure is equal().

STO Copies the number in the
display to the memory

location. The corresponding action procedure is

store().

RCL Copies the number from the
memory location to

the display. The corresponding action procedure

is recall().

SUM Adds the number in the
display to the number in

the memory location. The corresponding action

procedure is sum().

EXC Swaps the number in the
display with the number

in the memory location. The corresponding

action procedure for the TI calculator is

exchange().

+/- Negate; change sign. The
corresponding action

procedure is negate().

. Decimal point. The action
procedure is deci-

mal().

Calculator Key Usage (RPN mode):
The number keys, CHS

(change sign), +, -, *, /, and ENTR keys all do exactly

what you would expect them to do. Many of the remaining

keys are the same as in TI mode. The differences are

detailed below. The action procedure for the ENTR key is

enter().

<- This is a backspace key
that can be used if you

make a mistake while entering a number. It will

erase digits from the display. (See BUGS).

Inverse backspace will clear the X register.

The corresponding action procedure is back().

ON Clears the display, the
state, and the memory.

Pressing it with the third pointer button turns

off the calculator, in that it exits the pro-

gram. To clear state, the action procedure is

off; to quit, quit().

INV Inverts the meaning of the
function keys. This

would be the f key on an HP calculator, but

xcalc does not display multiple legends on each

key. See the individual function keys for

details.

10^x Raises "10.0" to
the number in the top of the

stack. When inverted, it calculates the log

(base 10) of the number in the display. The

corresponding action procedure is tenpower().

e^x Raises "e" to the
number in the top of the

stack. When inverted, it calculates the log

(base e) of the number in the display. The

action procedure is epower().

STO Copies the number in the top
of the stack to a

memory location. There are 10 memory locations.

The desired memory is specified by following

this key with a digit key.

RCL Pushes the number from the
specified memory

location onto the stack.

SUM Adds the number on top of
the stack to the num-

ber in the specified memory location.

x:y Exchanges the numbers in the
top two stack posi-

tions, the X and Y registers. The corresponding

action procedure is XexchangeY().

R v Rolls the stack downward.
When inverted, it

rolls the stack upward. The corresponding

action procedure is roll().

blank These keys were used for
programming functions

on the HP-10C. Their functionality has not been

duplicated in xcalc.

Finally, there are two
additional action procedures:

bell(), which rings the bell; and selection(), which per-

forms a cut on the entire number in the calculator’s

‘‘liquid crystal’’ display.

ACCELERATORS

Accelerators are shortcuts for entering commands. xcalc

provides some sample keyboard accelerators; also users can

customize accelerators. The numeric keypad accelerators

provided by xcalc should be intuitively correct. The

accelerators defined by xcalc on the main keyboard are

given below:

TI Key HP Key Keyboard Accelerator TI Function HP Function

SQRT SQRT r squareRoot()
squareRoot()

AC ON space clear() clear()

AC <- Delete clear() back()

AC <- Backspace clear() back()

AC <- Control-H clear() back()

AC Clear clear()

AC ON q quit() quit()

AC ON Control-C quit() quit()

INV i i inverse() inverse()

sin s s sine() sine()

cos c c cosine() cosine()

tan t t tangent() tangent()

DRG DRG d degree() degree()

e e e()

ln ln l naturalLog() naturalLog()

y^x y^x ^ power() power()

PI PI p pi() pi()

x! x! ! factorial() factorial()

( ( leftParen()

) ) rightParen()

/ / / divide() divide()

* * * multiply() multiply()

- - - subtract() subtract()

+ + + add() add()

= = equal()

0..9 0..9 0..9 digit() digit()

. . . decimal() decimal()

+/- CHS n negate() negate()

x:y x XexchangeY()

ENTR Return enter()

ENTR Linefeed enter()

CUSTOMIZATION

The application class name is XCalc.

xcalc has an enormous
application defaults file which

specifies the position, label, and function of each key on

the calculator. It also gives translations to serve as

keyboard accelerators. Because these resources are not

specified in the source code, you can create a customized

calculator by writing a private application defaults file,

using the Athena Command and Form widget resources to

specify the size and position of buttons, the label for

each button, and the function of each button.

The foreground and background
colors of each calculator

key can be individually specified. For the TI calculator,

a classical color resource specification might be:

XCalc.ti.Command.background:
gray50

XCalc.ti.Command.foreground: white

For each of buttons 20, 25, 30,
35, and 40, specify:

XCalc.ti.button20.background: black

XCalc.ti.button20.foreground: white

For each of buttons 22, 23, 24,
27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34,

37, 38, and 39:

XCalc.ti.button22.background: white

XCalc.ti.button22.foreground: black

WIDGET HIERARCHY

In order to specify resources, it is useful to know the

hierarchy of the widgets which compose xcalc. In the

notation below, indentation indicates hierarchical struc-

ture. The widget class name is given first, followed by

the widget instance name.

XCalc xcalc

Form ti or hp (the name depends on the mode)

Form bevel

Form screen

Label M

Toggle LCD

Label INV

Label DEG

Label RAD

Label GRAD

Label P

Command button1

Command button2

Command button3

and so on, ...

Command button38

Command button39

Command button40

APPLICATION RESOURCES

rpn (Class Rpn)

Specifies that the rpn mode should be used. The

default is TI mode.

stipple (Class Stipple)

Indicates that the background should be stippled.

The default is ‘‘on’’ for monochrome
displays, and

‘‘off’’ for color displays.

cursor (Class Cursor)

The name of the symbol used to represent the

pointer. The default is
‘‘hand2’’.

COLORS

If you would like xcalc to use its ti colors, include the

following in the #ifdef COLOR section of the file you read

with xrdb:

*customization: -color

This will cause xcalc to pick up
the colors in the app-

defaults color customization file:
<XRoot>/lib/X11/app-

defaults/XCalc-color.

SEE ALSO

X(1), xrdb(1), the Athena Widget Set

BUGS

HP mode: A bug report claims that the sequence of keys 5,

ENTER, <- should clear the display, but it
doesn’t.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright ([, X Consortium

See X(1) for a full statement of rights and permissions.

AUTHORS

John Bradley, University of Pennsylvania

Mark Rosenstein, MIT Project Athena

Donna Converse, MIT X Consortium

X Version 11 Release 6 7