listbox - Create and manipulate listbox widgets
listbox pathName ?options?
See the options manual entry for details on the standard options.
[-height height] Specifies the desired height for the window, in lines. │ If zero or less, then the desired height for the window is made just │ large enough to hold all the elements in the listbox. │ [-selectmode selectMode] Specifies one of several styles for │ manipulating the selection. The value of the option may be arbitrary, │ but the default bindings expect it to be either single, browse, │ multiple, or extended; the default value is browse. [-width width] Specifies the desired width for the window in characters. If the font doesn’t have a uniform width then the width of the character ’’0’’ is used in translating from character units to screen units. If zero or │ less, then the desired width for the window is made just large enough │ to hold all the elements in the listbox. _________________________________________________________________
The listbox command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument) and makes it into a listbox widget. Additional options, described above, may be specified on the command line or in the option database to configure aspects of the listbox such as its colors, font, text, and relief. The listbox command returns its pathName argument. At the time this command is invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName, but pathName’s parent must exist.
A listbox is a widget that displays a list of strings, one per line. When first created, a new listbox has no elements. Elements may be added or deleted using widget commands described below. In addition, one or more elements may be selected as described below. If a listbox is exporting its selection (see exportSelection option), then it will observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the selection. Listbox selections are available as type STRING; the value of the selection │ will be the text of the selected elements, with newlines separating the │ elements. │
It is not necessary for all the elements to be displayed in the listbox │ window at once; commands described below may be used to change the │ view in the window. Listboxes allow scrolling in both directions using │ the standard xScrollCommand and yScrollCommand options. They also │ support scanning, as described below. │
Many of the widget commands for
listboxes take one or more indices as │
arguments. An index specifies a particular element of the
listbox, in │ any of the following ways:
Specifies the element as a numerical index, where 0 │ corresponds to the first element in the listbox. │
Indicates the element that has the location cursor. This │ element will be displayed with an underline when the │ listbox has the keyboard focus, and it is specified with │ the activate widget command. │
Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set │ with the selection anchor widget command.
Indicates the end of the listbox. For some commands this means just after the last element; for other commands it means the last element.
Indicates the element that covers the point in the listbox │ window specified by x and y (in pixel coordinates). If no │ element covers that point, then the closest element to that │ point is used. │
In the widget command descriptions below, arguments named index, first, │ and last always contain text indices in one of the above forms.
The listbox command creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the widget. It has the following general form:
pathName option ?arg arg ...?
Option and the
args determine the exact behavior of the command. The
following commands are possible for listbox widgets:
pathName activate index
Sets the active element to the one indicated by index. The │ active element is drawn with an underline when the widget has │ the input focus, and its index may be retrieved with the index │ active. │
pathName bbox index │
Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of │ the text in the element given by index. The first two elements │ of the list give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left │ corner of the screen area covered by the text (specified in │ pixels relative to the widget) and the last two elements give │ the width and height of the area, in pixels. If no part of the │ element given by index is visible on the screen then the result │ is an empty string; if the element is partially visible, the │ result gives the full area of the element, including any parts │ that are not visible. │
pathName cget option │
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by │ option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the │ listbox command.
pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values accepted by the listbox command.
Returns a list containing the numerical indices of all of the elements in the listbox that are currently selected. If there are no elements selected in the listbox then an empty string is returned.
pathName delete first ?last?
Deletes one or more elements of the listbox. First and last are indices specifying the first and last elements in the range to delete. If last isn’t specified it defaults to first, i.e. a single element is deleted.
pathName get first ?last?
If last is omitted, returns the contents of the listbox element indicated by first. If last is specified, the command returns a │ list whose elements are all of the listbox elements between │ first and last, inclusive. Both first and last may have any of │ the standard forms for indices. │
pathName index index │
Returns a decimal string giving the integer index value that │ corresponds to index. │
pathName insert index ?element element ...? │
Inserts zero or more new elements in the list just before the │ element given by index. If index is specified as end then the │ new elements are added to the end of the list. Returns an empty │ string. │
pathName nearest y │
Given a y-coordinate within the listbox window, this command │ returns the index of the (visible) listbox element nearest to │ that y-coordinate. │
pathName scan option args │
This command is used to
implement scanning on listboxes. It has │
two forms, depending on option: │
pathName scan mark x y │
Records x and y and the current view in the listbox │ window; used in conjunction with later scan dragto │ commands. Typically this command is associated with a │ mouse button press in the widget. It returns an empty │ string. │
pathName scan dragto x y. │
This command computes the difference between its x and y │ arguments and the x and y arguments to the last scan mark │ command for the widget. It then adjusts the view by 10 │ times the difference in coordinates. This command is │ typically associated with mouse motion events in the │ widget, to produce the effect of dragging the list at │ high speed through the window. The return value is an │ empty string. │
pathName see index │
Adjust the view in the listbox so that the element given by │ index is visible. If the element is already visible then the │ command has no effect; if the element is near one edge of the │ window then the listbox scrolls to bring the element into view │ at the edge; otherwise the listbox scrolls to center the │ element. │
pathName selection option arg │
This command is used to adjust
the selection within a listbox. │ It has
several forms, depending on option:
pathName selection anchor index │
Sets the selection anchor to the element given by index. │ The selection anchor is the end of the selection that is │ fixed while dragging out a selection with the mouse. The │ index anchor may be used to refer to the anchor element. │
pathName selection clear first ?last? │
If any of the elements between first and last (inclusive) │ are selected, they are deselected. The selection state │ is not changed for elements outside this range. │
pathName selection includes index │
Returns 1 if the element indicated by index is currently │ selected, 0 if it isn’t. │
pathName selection set first ?last? │
Selects all of the elements in the range between first │ and last, inclusive, without affecting the selection │ state of elements outside that range. │
pathName size │
Returns a decimal string indicating the total number of elements │ in the listbox. │
pathName xview args │
This command is used to query
and change the horizontal position │ of the
information in the widget’s window. It can take any of
│ the following forms: │
pathName xview │
Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is │ a real fraction between 0 and 1; together they describe │ the horizontal span that is visible in the window. For │ example, if the first element is .2 and the second │ element is .6, 20% of the listbox’s text is off-screen to │ the left, the middle 40% is visible in the window, and │ 40% of the text is off-screen to the right. These are │ the same values passed to scrollbars via the │ -xscrollcommand option. │
pathName xview index │
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character │ position given by index is displayed at the left edge of │ the window. Character positions are defined by the width │ of the character 0. │
pathName xview moveto fraction │
Adjusts the view in the window so that fraction of the │ total width of the listbox text is off-screen to the │ left. fraction must be a fraction between 0 and 1. │
pathName xview scroll number what │
This command shifts the view in the window left or right │ according to number and what. Number must be an integer. │ What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of │ one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or │ right by number character units (the width of the 0 │ character) on the display; if it is pages then the view │ adjusts by number screenfuls. If number is negative then │ characters farther to the left become visible; if it is │ positive then characters farther to the right become │ visible. │
pathName yview ?args? │
This command is used to query
and change the vertical position │ of the
text in the widget’s window. It can take any of the
│ following forms: │
pathName yview │
Returns a list containing two elements, both of which are │ real fractions between 0 and 1. The first element gives │ the position of the listbox element at the top of the │ window, relative to the listbox as a whole (0.5 means it │ is halfway through the listbox, for example). The second │ element gives the position of the listbox element just │ after the last one in the window, relative to the listbox │ as a whole. These are the same values passed to │ scrollbars via the -yscrollcommand option. │
pathName yview index │
Adjusts the view in the window so that the element given │ by index is displayed at the top of the window. │
pathName yview moveto fraction │
Adjusts the view in the window so that the element given │ by fraction appears at the top of the window. Fraction │ is a fraction between 0 and 1; 0 indicates the first │ element in the listbox, 0.33 indicates the element │ one-third the way through the listbox, and so on. │
pathName yview scroll number what │
This command adjusts the view in the window up or down │ according to number and what. Number must be an integer. │ What must be either units or pages. If what is units, │ the view adjusts up or down by number lines; if it is │ pages then the view adjusts by number screenfuls. If │ number is negative then earlier elements become visible; │ if it is positive then later elements become visible. │
Tk automatically creates class bindings for listboxes that give them │ Motif-like behavior. Much of the behavior of a listbox is determined │ by its selectMode option, which selects one of four ways of dealing │ with the selection. │
If the selection mode is single or browse, at most one element can be │ selected in the listbox at once. In both modes, clicking button 1 on │ an element selects it and deselects any other selected item. In browse │ mode it is also possible to drag the selection with button 1. │
If the selection mode is multiple or extended, any number of elements │ may be selected at once, including discontiguous ranges. In multiple │ mode, clicking button 1 on an element toggles its selection state │ without affecting any other elements. In extended mode, pressing │ button 1 on an element selects it, deselects everything else, and sets │ the anchor to the element under the mouse; dragging the mouse with │ button 1 down extends the selection to include all the elements between │ the anchor and the element under the mouse, inclusive. │
Most people will probably want to use browse mode for single selections │ and extended mode for multiple selections; the other modes appear to be │ useful only in special situations. │
In addition to
the above behavior, the following additional behavior is
│ defined by the default bindings:
In extended mode, the selected range can be adjusted by pressing │ button 1 with the Shift key down: this modifies the selection │ to consist of the elements between the anchor and the element │ under the mouse, inclusive. The un-anchored end of this new │ selection can also be dragged with the button down. │
In extended mode, pressing button 1 with the Control key down │ starts a toggle operation: the anchor is set to the element │ under the mouse, and its selection state is reversed. The │ selection state of other elements isn’t changed. If the mouse │ is dragged with button 1 down, then the selection state of all │ elements between the anchor and the element under the mouse is │ set to match that of the anchor element; the selection state of │ all other elements remains what it was before the toggle │ operation began. │
If the mouse leaves the listbox window with button 1 down, the │ window scrolls away from the mouse, making information visible │ that used to be off-screen on the side of the mouse. The │ scrolling continues until the mouse re-enters the window, the │ button is released, or the end of the listbox is reached. │
Mouse button 2 may be used for scanning. If it is pressed and │ dragged over the listbox, the contents of the listbox drag at │ high speed in the direction the mouse moves. │
If the Up or Down key is pressed, the location cursor (active │ element) moves up or down one element. If the selection mode is │ browse or extended then the new active element is also selected │ and all other elements are deselected. In extended mode the new │ active element becomes the selection anchor. │
In extended mode, Shift-Up and Shift-Down move the location │ cursor (active element) up or down one element and also extend │ the selection to that element in a fashion similar to dragging │ with mouse button 1. │
The Left and Right keys scroll the listbox view left and right │ by the width of the character 0. Control-Left and Control-Right │ scroll the listbox view left and right by the width of the │ window. Control-Prior and Control-Next also scroll left and │ right by the width of the window. │
The Prior and Next keys scroll the listbox view up and down by │ one page (the height of the window). │
The Home and End keys scroll the listbox horizontally to the │ left and right edges, respectively. │
Control-Home sets the location cursor to the the first element │ in the listbox, selects that element, and deselects everything │ else in the listbox. │
Control-End sets the location cursor to the the last element in │ the listbox, selects that element, and deselects everything else │ in the listbox. │
In extended mode, Control-Shift-Home extends the selection to │ the first element in the listbox and Control-Shift-End extends │ the selection to the last element. │
In multiple mode, Control-Shift-Home moves the location cursor │ to the first element in the listbox and Control-Shift-End moves │ the location cursor to the last element. │
The space and Select keys make a selection at the location │ cursor (active element) just as if mouse button 1 had been │ pressed over this element. │
In extended mode, Control-Shift-space and Shift-Select extend │ the selection to the active element just as if button 1 had been │ pressed with the Shift key down. │
In extended mode, the Escape key cancels the most recent │ selection and restores all the elements in the selected range to │ their previous selection state. │
Control-slash selects everything in the widget, except in single │ and browse modes, in which case it selects the active element │ and deselects everything else. │
Control-backslash deselects everything in the widget, except in │ browse mode where it has no effect. │
The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w │ copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is │ a selection. │
The behavior of listboxes can be changed by defining new bindings for individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.