entry - Create and manipulate entry widgets
entry pathName ?options?
See the options manual entry for details on the standard options.
[-show show] If this option is specified, then the true contents of the │ entry are not displayed in the window. Instead, each character in the │ entry’s value will be displayed as the first character in the value of │ this option, such as ’’*’’. This is useful, for example, if the entry │ is to be used to enter a password. If characters in the entry are │ selected and copied elsewhere, the information copied will be what is │ displayed, not the true contents of the entry. [-state state] Specifies one of two states for the entry: normal or disabled. If the entry is disabled then the value may not be changed using widget commands and no insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is in the widget. [-width width] Specifies an integer value indicating the desired width of the entry window, in average-size characters of the widget’s font. If the value is less than or equal to │ zero, the widget picks a size just large enough to hold its current │ text. _________________________________________________________________
The entry command creates a new window (given by the pathName argument) and makes it into an entry widget. Additional options, described above, may be specified on the command line or in the option database to configure aspects of the entry such as its colors, font, and relief. The entry command returns its pathName argument. At the time this command is invoked, there must not exist a window named pathName, but pathName’s parent must exist.
An entry is a widget that displays a one-line text string and allows that string to be edited using widget commands described below, which are typically bound to keystrokes and mouse actions. When first created, an entry’s string is empty. A portion of the entry may be selected as described below. If an entry is exporting its selection (see the exportSelection option), then it will observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the selection; entry selections are available as type STRING. Entries also observe the standard Tk rules for dealing with the input focus. When an entry has the input focus it displays an insertion cursor to indicate where new characters will be inserted.
Entries are capable of displaying strings that are too long to fit entirely within the widget’s window. In this case, only a portion of the string will be displayed; commands described below may be used to change the view in the window. Entries use the standard xScrollCommand mechanism for interacting with scrollbars (see the description of the xScrollCommand option for details). They also support scanning, as described below.
The entry command creates a new Tcl command whose name is pathName. This command may be used to invoke various operations on the widget. It has the following general form:
pathName option ?arg arg ...?
Option and the args determine the exact behavior of the command.
Many of the widget commands for entries take one or more indices as arguments. An index specifies a particular character in the entry’s string, in any of the following ways:
Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0 corresponds to the first character in the string.
Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set │ with the select from and select adjust widget commands.
Indicates the character just after the last one in the entry’s string. This is equivalent to specifying a numerical index equal to the length of the entry’s string.
Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately following the insertion cursor.
Indicates the first character in the selection. It is an error to use this form if the selection isn’t in the entry window.
Indicates the character just after the last one in the │ selection. It is an error to use this form if the selection isn’t in the entry window.
In this form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the entry’s window; the character spanning that x-coordinate is used. For example, ’’@0’’ indicates the left-most character in the window.
Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms above, e.g. ’’e’’ or ’’sel.f’’. In general, out-of-range indices are automatically rounded to the nearest legal value.
commands are possible for entry widgets:
pathName bbox index │
Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of │ the character given by index. The first two elements of the │ list give the x and y coordinates of the upper-left corner of │ the screen area covered by the character (in pixels relative to │ the widget) and the last two elements give the width and height │ of the character, in pixels. The bounding box may refer to a │ region outside the visible area of the window. │
pathName cget option │
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by │ option. Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry │ command.
pathName configure ?option? ?value option value ...?
Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no option is specified, returns a list describing all of the available options for pathName (see Tk_ConfigureInfo for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value, then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values accepted by the entry command.
pathName delete first ?last?
Delete one or more elements of the entry. First is the index of the first character to delete, and last is the index of the │ character just after the last one to delete. If last isn’t specified it defaults to first+1, i.e. a single character is deleted. This command returns an empty string.
Returns the entry’s string.
pathName icursor index
Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the character given by index. Returns an empty string.
pathName index index
Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.
pathName insert index string
Insert the characters of string just before the character indicated by index. Returns an empty string.
pathName scan option args
This command is used to
implement scanning on entries. It has two forms, depending
pathName scan mark x
Records x and the current view in the entry window; used in conjunction with later scan dragto commands. Typically this command is associated with a mouse button press in the widget. It returns an empty string.
pathName scan dragto x
This command computes the difference between its x argument and the x argument to the last scan mark command for the widget. It then adjusts the view left or right by 10 times the difference in x-coordinates. This command is typically associated with mouse motion events in the widget, to produce the effect of dragging the entry at high speed through the window. The return value is an empty string.
pathName selection option arg
This command is used to adjust
the selection within an entry. It has several forms,
depending on option:
pathName selection adjust index
Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by index, and adjust that end of the selection to be at index (i.e including but not going beyond index). The other end of the selection is made the anchor point for future select to commands. If the selection isn’t currently in the entry, then a new selection is created to include the characters between index and the most recent selection anchor point, inclusive. Returns an empty string.
pathName selection clear
Clear the selection if it is currently in this widget. If the selection isn’t in this widget then the command has no effect. Returns an empty string.
pathName selection from index
Set the selection anchor point to just before the character given by index. Doesn’t change the selection. Returns an empty string.
pathName selection present
Returns 1 if there is are characters selected in the │ entry, 0 if nothing is selected. │
pathName selection range start end │
Sets the selection to include the characters starting │ with the one indexed by start and ending with the one │ just before end. If end refers to the same character as │ start or an earlier one, then the entry’s selection is │ cleared.
pathName selection to index
If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from index up to but not including the anchor point. If index is the same as the anchor point, do nothing. If index is after the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from the anchor point up to but not including index. The anchor point is determined by the most recent select from or select adjust command in this widget. If the selection isn’t in this widget then a new selection is created using the most recent anchor point specified for the widget. Returns an empty string.
pathName xview args │
This command is used to query
and change the horizontal position │ of the
text in the widget’s window. It can take any of the
│ following forms: │
pathName xview │
Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is │ a real fraction between 0 and 1; together they describe │ the horizontal span that is visible in the window. For │ example, if the first element is .2 and the second │ element is .6, 20% of the entry’s text is off-screen to │ the left, the middle 40% is visible in the window, and │ 40% of the text is off-screen to the right. These are │ the same values passed to scrollbars via the │ -xscrollcommand option. │
pathName xview index │
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character │ given by index is displayed at the left edge of the │ window. │
pathName xview moveto fraction │
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character │ fraction of the way through the text appears at the left │ edge of the window. Fraction must be a fraction between │ 0 and 1. │
pathName xview scroll number what │
This command shifts the view in the window left or right │ according to number and what. Number must be an integer. │ What must be either units or pages or an abbreviation of │ one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or │ right by number average-width characters on the display; │ if it is pages then the view adjusts by number │ screenfuls. If number is negative then characters │ farther to the left become visible; if it is positive │ then characters farther to the right become visible. │
automatically creates class bindings for entries that give
them the following default behavior. In the descriptions
below, ’’word’’ refers
│ to a contiguous group of letters, digits,
or ’’_’’ characters, or any
│ single character other than these.
Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor just │ before the character underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input │ focus to this widget, and clears any selection in the widget. │ Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between the │ insertion cursor and the character under the mouse. │
Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the │ mouse and positions the insertion cursor at the beginning of the │ word. Dragging after a double click will stroke out a selection │ consisting of whole words. │
Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects all of the text in │ the entry and positions the insertion cursor before the first │ character. │
The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse │ button 1 while the Shift key is down; this will adjust the end │ of the selection that was nearest to the mouse cursor when │ button 1 was pressed. If the button is double-clicked before │ dragging then the selection will be adjusted in units of whole │ words. │
Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will position │ the insertion cursor in the entry without affecting the │ selection. │
If any normal printing characters are typed in an entry, they │ are inserted at the point of the insertion cursor. │
The view in the entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse │ button 2. If mouse button 2 is clicked without moving the │ mouse, the selection is copied into the entry at the position of │ the mouse cursor. │
If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the left or right │ sides while button 1 is pressed, the entry will automatically │ scroll to make more text visible (if there is more text │ off-screen on the side where the mouse left the window). │
The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character │ to the left or right; they also clear any selection in the │ entry and set the selection anchor. If Left or Right is typed │ with the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves and the │ selection is extended to include the new character. │ Control-Left and Control-Right move the insertion cursor by │ words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right move the │ insertion cursor by words and also extend the selection. │ Control-b and Control-f behave the same as Left and Right, │ respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave the same as Control-Left │ and Control-Right, respectively. │
The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to │ the beginning of the entry and clear any selection in the entry. │ Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to the beginning of the │ entry and also extends the selection to that point. │
The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the │ end of the entry and clear any selection in the entry. │ Shift-End moves the cursor to the end and extends the selection │ to that point. │
The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the │ position of the insertion cursor. They don’t affect the current │ selection. Shift-Select and Control-Shift-Space adjust the │ selection to the current position of the insertion cursor, │ selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if there was │ not any selection previously. │
Control-/ selects all the text in the entry. │
Control-\ clears any selection in the entry. │
The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w │ copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard, if there is │ a selection. │
The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w │ copies the selection in the widget to the clipboard and deletes │ the selection. If there is no selection in the widget then │ these keys have no effect. │
The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or │ Control-y inserts the contents of the clipboard at the position │ of the insertion cursor. │
The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one in the │ entry. If there is no selection, it deletes the character to │ the right of the insertion cursor. │
The BackSpace key and Control-h delete the selection, if there │ is one in the entry. If there is no selection, it deletes the │ character to the left of the insertion cursor. │
Control-d deletes the character to the right of the insertion │ cursor. │
Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor. │
Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the │ insertion cursor. │
Control-w deletes the word to the left of the insertion cursor. │
Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right │ of the insertion cursor.
If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entry’s view can still be adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected, but no insertion cursor will be displayed and no text modifications will take place.
The behavior of entries can be changed by defining new bindings for individual widgets or by redefining the class bindings.